The Programme of National 3R Strategy Development was initiated as one of the outcomes of the Ministerial Conference on the 3R Initiative held in Tokyo, Japan, in March 2005. The project was funded by the Ministry of the Environment of Japan and the Asian Development Bank (for Viet Nam only) and jointly implemented by the United Nations Centre for Regional Development (UNCRD), the United Nations Environmental Programme / Regional Resource Centre in Asia and the Pacific (AIT/UNEP RRC.AP), and the Institute for Global Environmental Strategies (IGES). In anticipation of Asia’s serious waste and resource-related challenges together with the region’s rapid economic development, the project has aimed to disseminate and raise awareness on the 3R concept and to foster strong political leadership for the 3R implementation in Asian countries. Until 2009, the project provided support to the following six countries: Bangladesh, Cambodia, Indonesia, Philippines, Thailand, and Viet Nam. This report also includes the status of Malaysia to learn about its experience in developing a National Strategic Plan for Solid Waste Management which was initiated in 2006. This report summarises the current situation of waste management and 3R activities in each country, existing systems and regulatory frameworks for waste management and the 3Rs, the current progress of National 3R Strategy Development (as of August 2009), suggested focus of National 3R Strategies and future challenges.