The five key environmental issues identified for Mongolia are: (1) land degradation, (2) desertification, (3) deforestation,(4) loss of biodiversity, and (5) urban air pollution. Mining industry, livestock overgrazing, and various naturalcauses have led to significant land degradation in the country. Similarly, climatic variations, overgrazing, forestclearance, burning of vegetation mass, and vehicular operations have contributed significantly to the desertificationproblem. Forests resources have been increasingly degrading over the past few years, due to timber cutting, forestfires, pests and diseases, causing ecological stress and accelerating natural disasters in some regions. The biodiversityresources are facing substantial and increasing threats from factors like growing population, coupled with urbanization,economic development, and an increasing per-capita demand for natural resources. Burning of coal and woods inthe households in urban cities, rising number of vehicles and also the emission from thermal power plants havebeen the major sources of air pollution, causing acute respiratory diseases in some urban localities.