The five key environmental issues identified for India are (1) land degradation, (2) biodiversity,(3) air pollution with special reference to vehicular pollution in cities, (4) management of freshwater resources, and (5) hazardous waste management with special reference to municipalsolid waste management. Land degradation is taking place through natural and man-madeprocess resulting to loss of invaluable nutrients and lower food grain production. Loss ofbiodiversity is of great concern since many plant and animal species are being threatened. Airpollution in cities is deteriorating due to vehicular growth and trends of air pollution relateddiseases are increasing. Availability of fresh water, which is going to be one of the critical problemsin the coming decades, needs to be addressed on a priority basis. Generation of large quantityof hazardous waste from industries and also the hospital waste has been affecting the publichealth and environment.This SoE assessment for India provides a sound basis for the development of action plans, thenext stage of the planning process, as we enter the new millenium. The report aims to provideconcrete guidance for action planning, policy setting and resource allocation for the comingdecades to improve the state of the environment of India and the welfare of her people.